By 2003 data, the cost of white LEDs (expressed in lumens – unit of luminous flux) is 300 times greater than the cost of incandescent bulbs! Of course, the massive use of expensive lighting devices is somewhat unrealistic, Even if we consider that the life of the led (about 50 000 hours), ten times more than incandescent bulbs. The more so because of the efficiency of white LEDs are now only two times higher than incandescent lamps and even do not reach fluorescent light. But progress is inexorable. Production of super-bright LEDs increases by 30-40% per year (by the way, 50% of the market accounted for backlighting screens for various electronic devices). Respectively, are growing and the cost of research and development. So that the efficiency of LEDs will continue to grow, and the price per unit of luminous flux – to plummet. She was already falling by about 10 times every 10 years. Moderately optimistic forecasts promise that by 2020, semiconductor light sources come in most homes. Incidentally, the Moscow government did not wait for 2020 and adopted a medium term target program “Energy efficient lighting based on led technology “for 2004-2006.
According to this program are encouraged to use LEDs in the test construction, housing and other areas. For example, the led lights will be installed in underground crossings, entrances, elevators on floors, that is, where do not need more light, but it requires minimal maintenance and cost, as well as high Antivandal. Needless to say that the U.S. operates a similar national program Solid State Lighting (Solid state lighting”). Good to know that the appearance of the LEDs had a hand in our compatriots. Physical phenomenon, which relies on the led, first observed by O. Losev in Novgorod in 1923. Modern LEDs represent a heterostructure, ie, layers of different semiconductor materials grown on top of each other and have a common crystal lattice. And the first heterostructure created zi Alferov, in 1960, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 2000. Today our success in this area, however, is very modest, but nevertheless, we note that Moscow once the world’s first city with a massive use of led traffic lights, installing thousands of such lights to its 850-year anniversary. Of course, they were made from imported light-emitting diodes, but now in Russia are made super-bright LEDs. But again the main component of a white led (semiconductor structure consisting of gallium nitride and indium) comes from abroad, since cultivation of these structures – a very delicate process and requires expensive equipment, which in Russia yet. What awaits in the future the industry – time will tell.