Petersburg, Novokuznetsk, Omsk, Novosibirsk and other cities of Russia. Draw – we live metal frame construction technology building differs from traditional methods of construction due to their structural features. For residential high-rise buildings bearing frame is made of black rolled and welded profiles of individual section. In turn, steel grade depends on climatic conditions. And if the southern and central Russia fit the standard metal, the need for North alloy steel. On the metal frame attached external wall. For the individual dwellings for these purposes, "sandwich" panel.
This multi-layered elements, consisting of two facing steel plates and heat-insulating layer between them, made of polystyrene foam, mineral wool or polyurethane foam. In most cases, their dimensions are: length – 2,5 12 m, width – 1,0 1,2 m, thickness – 50 250 mm. Exterior walls of low-rise and high-rise collective houses run facade of thermocouples, which are large-panel self-supporting construction of full operational readiness (option panel in Fig. 1). They consist of multiple layers to ensure durability and low thermal conductivity for the entire construction.
For example, the front thermocouple company (Finland) Series Nordikon or Energikon consist of a frame on the basis of thermo Termo, insulation, vapor barrier, and bilateral plating from drywall. The perforated wall is made of thermo corrosion-resistant galvanized steel with thickness 1,0 2,0 mm. To simplify the installation of such thermocouples already in the factory equipped with built-in doors and windows of aluminum and pvc profiles with one-or triple-pane windows. To diversify the look of the building, such details are faced with may different materials or grout. Depending on the Climatic performance thick wall panels can be from 50 to 200 mm. Panel homes for the Far North are equipped with additional insulation. Figure 1 "Thermal resistance of Modular buildings – says Konstantin Kapustin, Head of the Housing Construction, – can easily be brought into compliance with any climatic conditions and customer requirements. It's enough to pick up the necessary thickness of the insulation wall panels. The inner walls of these houses are usually made of frame sections (panels filling the interior of non-combustible soundproof material) or from gypsum partition blocks. Such an approach guarantees the highest quality of construction of the walls. Stable trend of the last time was the construction of complete residential buildings of metal. The entire set of building elements, including domestic utilities, supplied by one manufacturer. Such a project will be implemented in the construction of residential housing complex in the village. Dagomys Lazarevsky district of Sochi. Existing practice of domestic construction industry and many years of European experience shows that the construction of buildings on the basis of metal in compliance with the rules and regulations assembly allows you to build houses that effectively protect from the impact of external cooling, overheating, blowing, precipitation, and noise and, hence, "the weather at home will always be good. Elena Grishina
Tempered glass is called float glass, which has undergone a special chemical and thermal processing, resulting in the strength of the glass and the resistance to sudden temperature changes significantly increased (more than 5 times). In addition, the glass becomes much safer for humans. This is reflected in the fact that the destruction of tempered glass shatters into many small blunt pieces, which safe for humans (usually the same broken glass on the dangerous shards). Tempered glass is produced in special furnaces of the glass sheets. The process of tempering glass occurs in the following order: first the glass is heated above the softening temperature and then rapidly cooled in an evenly applied to the entire surface of the glass air jets. The first cooling hardens the surface layers of glass and then the inner layers, where the cooling, there are residual compressive stresses.
These voltages and provide mechanical strength and heat resistance of the material. As a result of these actions change the physical characteristics of glass: much increased strength of the material in relation to external factors (mechanical and thermal). For example, the tensile strength of tempered glass in bending can reach 250 MPa. This is 5-7 times higher than normal float glass; material able to withstand sudden changes in temperatures from -70 C to 250 C. With a gradual increase in temperature to 1800 C glass preserves the integrity and physical characteristics. Due to this property tempered glass is widely used in a fire-glazing, tempered glass is stable for a large temperature difference inside and outside. This property of material value in our Siberian conditions, where the air temperature outside, For example in winter can fall below the mark – 40 C, while in the room she reaches the value + 30 C, the optical characteristics of the material stored at 99% even if the heat treatment being tinted in the mass glass; fracture tempered glass instantly and completely breaks down into small, almost safe, with mild-edged shards. However, it should be noted that tempered glass can not be subjected to various kinds machining, such as: drilling, cutting, edging, etc. All the necessary manipulations with glass needs to be done before hardening. Cutting glass under the right size, edging glass, as well as drilling technology openings must take place before the hardening process, since after quenching the glass should not be subjected to these procedures (otherwise the glass will break into many small pieces when machining). Because of its safety and high performance, tempered glass is widely used in the manufacture of products such as interior glass doors, glass partitions, and various architectural design.
Polyethylene pipes hdpe has excellent corrosion and chemical resistance. Over time, the properties of polyethylene pipe is only getting better (the smoothness of the inner surface and an inner diameter of the pipe). Low thermal conductivity of polyethylene pipe for reducing heat loss and reduces the formation of condensation on the outer surface of plastic pipes. Reduce the probability of failure during freezing liquid pipeline, as with the tube does not collapse, but increases in diameter, acquiring former size during thawing of the liquid. Polyethylene pipe has a small weight, which facilitates assembly, especially in cramped conditions. Polyethylene pipes are 5-7 times lighter than steel, so that small movements of the installation does not require the lifting mechanisms and one vehicle can carry 5-7 times more than polyethylene tubes than steel.
Significant reduction in risk of water hammer due to the relatively low modulus of elasticity. Reliability of welds in joints throughout the life of pipelines. Ease of welding. Butt welding much cheaper, easier and takes less time. The possibility of multiple rewiring at low cost. Lower labor costs during installation., Polyethylene pipe – is a reliable shield against microorganisms and bacteria, its inner layer does not give any water contaminants. And as one of the most important factors is the low cost
Product Types of concrete. Companies-producers of concrete products typically specializes in the production of materials for walls, made by vibrocompression; products for the tiling and improvement. The most popular of reinforced concrete products are rings of the well cap the well and foundation blocks. The remaining output is produced by vibration compacting concrete in special forms of followed by solidification. In this way, get different kinds of blocks (septal, wall and air), 3 types of paving slabs ("coil", "brick" and the slab for the tram tracks), 3 types of curbs ("Garden", "road" and "roller"). In addition vypuskaetsyatovarny concrete in a large assortment. Reinforced concrete products are extremely durable.
The fact that the steel used as reinforcement construction, and concrete have the same coefficient of thermal expansion. This makes concrete one of the most durable and reliable materials. The plant manufactures 8 types of foundation blocks of various sizes – from 300mm (width) h580mm (height) h1180mm (length) to 600mmh580mmh2380mm. Ring wells produced 11 species, an outer diameter from 840 to 2200mm and a height of from 290 to 890mm. These reinforced concrete products are used to access devices located below ground pipelines for various purposes. Chastokoltsa wells used for the construction of drains, and sometimes for the construction of pipes. Also products are used as casing device for ordinary wells, dug for water supply companies as well as the private sector. Ready-mixed concrete – is a concrete mixture, which is made with the strictest observance of the production technology and quality control of products.
As you know, the higher the grade of concrete, the greater the burden on compression it can withstand. Concrete marki100 used for device preparation surface for subsequent layer pouring mixed concrete has a higher grade. Mark 200 is used for the blind area, floors and screeds, M300 – for the production of slabs and foundations. Higher grade ready-mixed concrete – is M400, which is used in bridge construction, hydraulic structures, girders and piles. Ready-mixed concrete of higher grades, due to its narrow scope, the factory is not made. The enterprise produces 7 types of concrete, 4 of them – are the main brands (M100, M200, M300, M400), and 3 intermediate (M150, M250, M350). Concrete is delivered to the place of construction work in special concrete mixers mounted on truck. A peculiarity of these mixers is that they work while driving, and not stir until the end of the ready-mixed concrete by the end of trip becomes ready for use. In all cases, to improve product characteristics such as increased strength, ductility, resistance to low temperatures and so forth, the concrete is added to the plasticizer.